Importing Shared Build Configuration

The main source of configuration for your build is the .travis.yml file stored in your repository. You can import shared configuration snippets into your .travis.yml or API build request payload, to update your build configuration in multiple repositories making only one change.

Imported configs can themselves include other configs, making this feature very composable (cyclic imports will be skipped). You can import up to 25 build configuration snippets in total.

BETA The feature Build Config Imports is currently in beta. Please leave feedback on the Community forum.

Opt-in #

In order for this feature to be active you have to enable the feature Build Config Validation which will be rolled out to all users in the near future.

You can enable Build Config Validation in your repository’s settings, or by adding version: ~> 1.0 to your .travis.yml file.

Example #

Instead of specifying which versions of Ruby to test against in multiple files across many repositories, you can define them in a shared snippet:

  - 2.5
  - 2.6

You can then import that snippet into your .travis.yml. The following configuration imports the file rubies.yml from the main branch of the shared-configs repository of the travis-ci account:

import: travis-ci/shared-configs:rubies.yml@main
script: bundle exec rake

Resulting in the following configuration:

  - 2.5
  - 2.6
script: bundle exec rake

Import sources #

The format of the import source is <account>/<repository>:<path>@<ref> in which <ref> can be any valid Git reference, such as a commit sha, branch name, or tag name.

Public repositories can import sources from public repositories, but not private repositories. Private repositories can import sources from both public and private repositories. See private repositories for more information.

Import a single source:

import: travis-ci/build-configs:rubies.yml@main

# or

  source: travis-ci/build-configs:rubies.yml@main

Import multiple sources:

  - travis-ci/build-configs:rubies.yml@adf1235
  - travis-ci/build-configs:other.yml@v1

# or

  - source: travis-ci/build-configs:rubies.yml@adf1235
  - source: travis-ci/build-configs:other.yml@v1

By default, the merge mode deep_merge_append is used to combine keys that are present in the importing and an imported config, or in multiple imported configs. You can customize this by specifying the merge mode used for each import. See below for more information on merge modes.

Importing configs from the same repository #

When importing configurations stored in the same repository as your travis.yml, you can omit the <account>/<repository> part:

# local imports fetch the same git commit ref
- one.yml
- path/to/other.yml

The path is relative to the repository’s root.

Importing specific versions of configs #

For configurations imported from a different repository the latest version of the default branch in the repository will be used by default.

For configurations imported from the same repository the commit you are currently building will be used by default. This is intended to help while you are creating and testing the shared configurations.

You can specify the exact version of a config snippet by using any valid Git reference:

- one.yml@production
- travis-ci/build-configs/other.yml@v1.0.0

Importing configs from private repositories #

In order to share configurations from a private repository this needs to be allowed on that repository, by enabling the Allow importing config files from this repository setting in More options > Settings > Config Import.

Only private repositories owned by the same organization or user account will be able to import configuration snippets from private repositories. Configs from private repositories cannot be imported to configs from public repositories.

Sharing encrypted secrets #

Encrypted secrets contained in imported config snippets can be shared and decrypted with repositories owned by the same organization or user account.

Configs from public repositories can be imported to configs from other public repositories owned by a different organization or user account, but encrypted secrets contained in those imported configs won’t be accessible.

Conditional imports #

Config imports can carry a condition that specifies under which circumstances the imported config is supposed to be included.

For example, with this config the local file .travis/master.yml will be imported for builds on the master branch, while .travis/other.yml will be imported for all other builds.

- source: .travis/master.yml
  if: branch = master
- source: .travis/other.yml
  if: branch != master

Please see Conditions for a full specification of the conditions syntax.

Merge modes #

The merge mode controls how imported configs are being merged (combined) into the importing config. A different merge mode can be specified for each imported config source.

There are these merge modes:

  • deep_merge_append (default)
  • deep_merge_prepend
  • deep_merge
  • merge

The default merge mode is deep_merge_append.

Deep merge append/prepend #

The merge modes deep_merge_append and deep_merge_prepend recursively merge sections (keys) that hold maps (hashes), and concatenates sequences (arrays) by either appending or prepending to the sequence in the importing config.

- source: one.yml
  mode: deep_merge_append
- source: other.yml
  mode: deep_merge_prepend

Deep merge #

The merge mode deep_merge recursively merges sections (keys) that hold maps (hashes), but overwrites sequences (arrays).

- source: one.yml
  mode: deep_merge # deep merge

This mode first merges your .travis.yml contents into the one.yml file (i.e., items in the .travis.yml file “win”, if the merge mode deep_merge would be used and will overwrite keys on respective levels in one.yml).


  - source: one.yml
  mode: deep_merge # deep merge
  - source: two.yml
  mode: deep_merge # deep merge

This mode first merges your .travis.yml contents into the one.yml file (overwriting, if required, sections in one.yml with content from .travis.yml). The results are merged into the two.yml file (again, items in the result of the previous merge win over what’s in this one, as the deep_merge mode is specified here).

The reasoning behind this is that in many cases when you import something to your .travis.yml file, you want to be able to overwrite or customize that imported configuration with config in your .travis.yml file.

Merge #

The merge mode merge performs a shallow merge.

This means that root level sections (keys) defined in your .travis.yml will overwrite root level sections (keys) that are also present in the imported file.

- source: one.yml
  mode: merge # shallow merge

Import precedence #

When triggering a build through the Travis API or the web UI, the order of ascending precedence is:

  • Config from the API build request payload, if given
  • Imported configs from the API build request payload, if given, in the order listed (following a depth-first search pattern in case those imported configs import other configs)
  • Config from .travis.yml
  • Imported configs from .travis.yml, in the order listed (following a depth-first search pattern in case those imported configs import other configs).


Can I import a shared build config at a specific job level? #

No. The parsed YAML trees must be merged. Thus, the import keyword is accepted only at the root level. If it suits your scenario, you can specify your job template in, e.g., job.yml and import it into your .travis.yml with the mode: deep_merge, adding in the .travis,yml specifics to be overridden in the imported template.

Is it possible to create and use anchors via the shared configs mechanism? #

Unfortunately, it’s not supported. As much as we encourage using YAML as a build configuration language, anchors and aliases, referring to these anchors must be defined and used within a single .yml file and will be expanded before any import action (merging parse trees) occurs. For the same reason, attempts to assign an anchor within .travis.yml to an imported key will not work — both .travis.yml and imported.yml must be parsed before the merge action can occur.

See also native-api concise explanation in the Community Forum