Speeding up the build
Travis CI implements a few optimizations which help to speed up your build, like in memory filesystem for DB’s files, but there is a range of things that can be done to improve build times even more.
Parallelizing your Builds across Virtual Machines #
To speed up a test suite, you can break it up into several parts using Travis CI’s build matrix feature.
Say you want to split up your unit tests and your integration tests into two different build jobs. They’ll run in parallel and fully utilize the available build capacity for your account.
Here’s an example on how to utilize this feature in your
env: - TEST_SUITE=units - TEST_SUITE=integration
Then you change your script command to use the new environment variable to determine the script to run.
script: "bundle exec rake test:$TEST_SUITE"
Travis CI will determine the build matrix based on the environment variables and schedule two builds to run.
The neat part about this setup is that the unit test suite is usually going to be done before the integration test suite, giving you a faster visual feedback on the basic test coverage.
Depending on the size and complexity of your test suite, you can split it up even further. You could separate different concerns for integration tests into different subfolders and run them in separate stages of a build matrix.
env: - TESTFOLDER=integration/user - TESTFOLDER=integration/shopping_cart - TESTFOLDER=integration/payments - TESTFOLDER=units
Then you can adjust your script command to run rspec for every subfolder:
script: "bundle exec rspec $TESTFOLDER"
For instance, the Rails project uses the build matrix feature to create separate jobs for every database to test against and also to split up the tests by concern. One set runs tests only for the railties, another one for actionpack, actionmailer, activesupport and a whole bunch of sets run the activerecord tests against multiple databases. See their .travis.yml file for more examples.
Parallelizing your Build on One Virtual Machine #
Parallelizing the test suite on one virtual machine depends on the language and test runner:
- For Ruby and RSpec use the parallel_tests gem.
- For Java, use the built-in feature to run tests in parallel using JUnit.
To give you an idea of the speedup we are talking about, I’ve tried to run tests in parallel on
travis-core and I was able to see a drop from about 26 minutes to about 19 minutes across 4 jobs.
Parallelizing RSpec, Cucumber and Minitest on Multiple VMs #
If you want to parallel tests for RSpec, Cucumber or Minitest on multiple VMs to get faster feedback from CI, you can try knapsack gem. It will split tests across virtual machines and make sure that tests will run a comparable time on each VM (each job will take similar time). You can use our matrix feature to set up knapsack.
RSpec Parallelization example #
script: "bundle exec rake knapsack:rspec" env: global: - MY_GLOBAL_VAR=123 - CI_NODE_TOTAL=2 jobs: - CI_NODE_INDEX=0 - CI_NODE_INDEX=1
Such configuration will generate a matrix with the 2 following ENV rows:
MY_GLOBAL_VAR=123 CI_NODE_TOTAL=2 CI_NODE_INDEX=0 MY_GLOBAL_VAR=123 CI_NODE_TOTAL=2 CI_NODE_INDEX=1
Cucumber Parallelization example #
script: "bundle exec rake knapsack:cucumber" env: global: - CI_NODE_TOTAL=2 jobs: - CI_NODE_INDEX=0 - CI_NODE_INDEX=1
Minitest Parallelization example #
script: "bundle exec rake knapsack:minitest" env: global: - CI_NODE_TOTAL=2 jobs: - CI_NODE_INDEX=0 - CI_NODE_INDEX=1
RSpec, Cucumber and Minitest Parallelization example #
If you want to parallelize a test suite for RSpec, Cucumber and Minitest at the same time, define script in
.travis.yml as follows:
script: - "bundle exec rake knapsack:rspec" - "bundle exec rake knapsack:cucumber" - "bundle exec rake knapsack:minitest"
You can find more examples in knapsack docs.
Caching the Dependencies #
Installing the dependencies for a project can take quite some time for bigger projects. In order to make it faster, you may try caching the dependencies.
You can either use our built-in caching or roll your own on S3. If you want to roll your own and you use Ruby with Bundler, check out the great WAD project. For other languages, you can use s3 tools directly to upload and download the dependencies.
Environment-Specific Ways to Speed up your Build #
In addition to the optimizations implemented by Travis, there are also several environment-specific ways you may consider to increase the speed of your tests.
PHP optimizations #
PHP VM images on Travis CI provide several PHP versions which include XDebug. The XDebug extension is useful, if you wish to generate code coverage reports in your Travis builds, but it has been shown to have a negative effect upon performance.
You may wish to consider disabling the PHP XDebug extension for your builds if:
- you are not generating code coverage reports in your Travis tests; or
- you are testing on PHP 7.0 or above and are able to use the PHP Debugger (phpdbg) which may be faster.
Using phpdbg example #
before_script: - phpenv config-rm xdebug.ini - composer install script: - phpdbg -qrr phpunit
Makefile optimization #
If your makefile build consists of independent parts that can be safely
parallelized, you can run multiple recipes
environments to determine
how many CPUs an environment normally has and set the
make job parameter to a
similar number (or slightly higher if your build frequently waits on disk I/O).
Note that doing this will cause concurrent recipe output to become interleaved.
Makefile parallelization example #
env: global: - MAKEFLAGS="-j 2"