The Precise Build Environment

What This Guide Covers #

This guide explain what packages, tools and settings are available in the Travis CI environment (often referred to as “CI environment”).

Overview #

Travis CI runs builds in isolated virtual machines that offer a vanilla build environment for every build.

This has the advantage that no state persists between builds, offering a clean state and making sure that your tests run in an environment built from scratch.

Builds have access to a variety of services for data storage and messaging, and can install anything that’s required for them to run.

Networking #

The virtual machines in the Legacy environment running the tests have IPv6 enabled. They do not have any external IPv4 address but are fully able to communicate with any external IPv4 service. The container-based, macOS, and GCE (both Precise and Trusty) builds do not currently have IPv6 connectivity.

The IPv6 stack can have some impact on Java services in particular, where one might need to set the flag to force the JVM to resort to the IPv4 stack should services show issues of not booting up or not being reachable via the network:

Most services work normally when talking to the local host by either localhost or

Environment common to all Precise images #

Below you will find a list of the things common to our Precise based images.

For other images, see the list below:

Version control #

All VM images have the following pre-installed

  • A Git 1.8 release from the git-core PPA
  • Mercurial (official Ubuntu packages)
  • Subversion (official Ubuntu packages)

Compilers & Build toolchain #

GCC, Clang, make, autotools, cmake, scons.

Networking tools #

curl, wget, OpenSSL, rsync

Go #

Go compiler/build tools.

Runtimes #

Every worker has at least one version of

  • Ruby
  • OpenJDK
  • Python
  • Node.js
  • Go compiler/build tool

to accommodate projects that may need one of those runtimes during the build.

Language-specific workers have multiple runtimes for their respective language (for example, Ruby workers have about 10 Ruby versions/implementations).

Databases #

  • MySQL
  • PostgreSQL
  • SQLite
  • MongoDB
  • Redis
  • Riak
  • Apache Cassandra
  • Neo4j Community Edition
  • ElasticSearch
  • CouchDB

Firefox #

All virtual environments have recent version of Firefox installed, currently 31.0 for Linux environments and 25.0 for macOS.

If you need a specific version of Firefox, use the Firefox addon to install it during the before_install stage of the build.

For example, to install version 17.0, add the following to your .travis.yml file:

  firefox: "17.0"

Please note that the addon only works in 64-bit Linux environments.

Messaging Technology #

Headless Browser Testing Tools #

Environment variables #

There is a list of default environment variables available in each build environment.

Libraries #

  • OpenSSL
  • ImageMagick

apt configuration #

apt is configured to not require confirmation (assume -y switch by default) using both DEBIAN_FRONTEND env variable and apt configuration file. This means apt-get install -qq can be used without the -y flag.

Group membership #

The user executing the build ($USER) belongs to one primary group derived from that user. If your project needs extra memberships to run the build, follow these steps:

  1. Set up the environment. This can be done any time during the build lifecycle prior to the build script execution.

    1. Set up and export environment variables.
    2. Add $USER to desired secondary groups: sudo usermod -a -G SECONDARY_GROUP_1,SECONDARY_GROUP_2 $USER

    You may modify the user’s primary group with -g.

  2. Your script would look something like:

    script: sudo -E su $USER -c 'COMMAND1; COMMAND2; COMMAND3'

This will pass the environment variables down to a bash process which runs as $USER, while retaining the environment variables defined and belonging to secondary groups given above in usermod.

Build system information #

In the build log, relevant software versions (including the available language versions) is show in the “Build system information”.

Go VM images #

The following aliases are available, and are recommended in order to minimize frictions when images are updated:

  • go1, go1.8 → 1.8.1
  • go1.0 → 1.0.3
  • go1.1.x → 1.1.2
  • go1.2 → 1.2.2
  • go1.2.x → 1.2.2
  • go1.3.x → 1.3.3
  • go1.4.x → 1.4.3
  • go1.5.x → 1.5.4
  • go1.6.x → 1.6.4
  • go1.7.x → 1.7.5
  • go1.8.x → 1.8.1
  • go1.x → 1.8.1
  • go1.x.x → 1.8.1

JVM (Clojure, Groovy, Java, Scala) VM images #

See the default JVM options for specific details on building JVM projects.


  • Oracle JDK 7 (oraclejdk7)
  • OpenJDK 7 (openjdk7)
  • OpenJDK 6 (openjdk6)
  • Oracle JDK 8 (oraclejdk8)

OracleJDK 7 is the default because we have a much more recent patch level compared to OpenJDK 7 from the Ubuntu repositories. Sun/Oracle JDK 6 is not provided because it reached End of Life in fall 2012.

The $JAVA_HOME will be set correctly when you choose the jdk value for the JVM image.

Maven version #

Stock Apache Maven 3.2.x, configured to use Central and Sonatype mirrors.

Leiningen versions #

Travis CI has both standalone (“uberjar”) Leiningen 1.7.x at /usr/local/bin/lein1 and Leiningen 2.4.x at /usr/local/bin/lein2. The default is 2.4.x; /usr/local/bin/lein is a symbolic link to /usr/local/bin/lein2.

SBT versions #

Travis CI potentially provides any version of Simple Build Tool (sbt or SBT) thanks to very powerful sbt-extras alternative. In order to reduce build time, popular versions of sbt are already pre-installed (like for instance 0.13.5 or 0.12.4), but sbt command is able to dynamically detect and install the sbt version required by your Scala projects.

See the default sbt options for specific details on building projects with sbt.

Gradle version #

Gradle 2.0.

Erlang VM images #

Erlang/OTP releases #

Erlang/OTP releases are built using kerl.

Rebar #

Travis CI provides a recent version of Rebar. If a repository has rebar binary bundled at ./rebar (in the repo root), it will be used instead of the preprovisioned version.

JavaScript and Node.js images #

Node.js versions #

Node runtimes are built and installed using nvm.

SCons #


Haskell VM images #

Haskell Platform Version #

Haskell Platform 2012.02 and GHC 7.0, 7.4, 7.6 and 7.8.

Perl VM images #

Perl versions #

Perl versions are installed via Perlbrew. Those runtimes that end with the -extras suffix have been compiled with -Duseshrplib and -Duseithreads flags. These also have aliases with the -shrplib suffix.

Pre-installed modules #

cpanm (App::cpanminus) Dist::Zilla Dist::Zilla::Plugin::Bootstrap::lib ExtUtils::MakeMaker LWP Module::Install Moose Test::Exception Test::Kwalitee Test::Most Test::Pod Test::Pod::Coverage

PHP VM images #

PHP versions #

PHP runtimes are built using php-build.

XDebug #

Is supported.

Core extensions #

See the default configure options to get an overview of the core extensions enabled.

Extensions #

[PHP Modules]

[Zend Modules]

Chef Cookbooks for PHP #

If you want to learn all the details of how we build and provision multiple PHP installations, see our php, phpenv and php-build Chef cookbooks.

Python VM images #

Python versions #

Every Python has a separate virtualenv that comes with pip and distribute and is activated before running the build.

Python 2.4 and Jython are not supported and there are no plans to support them in the future.

Default Python Version #

If you leave the python key out of your .travis.yml, Travis CI will use Python 2.7.

Preinstalled pip packages #

  • nose
  • py.test
  • mock
  • wheel

On all versions except pypy and pypy3 have numpy as well.

Ruby images #

The Ruby images contain recent versions of:

  • Ruby: 2.2.0, 2.1.x, 2.0.0, 1.9.3, 1.9.2 and 1.8.7
  • JRuby: 1.7.x (1.8 and 1.9 mode)
  • Ruby Enterprise Edition: 1.8.7 2012.02

Ruby 1.8.6 and 1.9.1 are no longer available Travis CI.

Pre-compiled versions are downloaded on demand from:

Rubinius Rubies are no longer available on Precise.

Bundler version #

Recent 1.7.x version (usually the most recent)

Gems in the global gem set #

  • bundler
  • rake