The Build Environment

What This Guide Covers

This guide explain what packages, tools and settings are available in the Travis CI environment (often referred to as “CI environment”).

Overview

Travis CI runs builds in isolated virtual machines that offer a vanilla build environment for every build.

This has the advantage that no state persists between builds, offering a clean slate and making sure that your tests run in an environment built from scratch.

Builds have access to a variety of services for data storage and messaging, and can install anything that’s required for them to run.

Virtualization environments

Each build runs in one of the following three virtual environments:

  • Standard (the default environment)
  • Container-based (the newer environment in which sudo commands are not available.
  • OSX for Objective-C projects

The following table summarizes the differences between the virtual environments:

Standard Container-based OS X
.travis.yml this is the default sudo: false language: objective-c or os: osx
Allows sudo, setuid and setgid yes no N/A
Boot Time slightly slower than Container-based slightly faster than Standard N/A
File System SIMFS, which is case-sensitive and can return directory entities in random order AUFS HFS+, which is case-insensitive and returns directory entities alphabetically
Cache available private only public only N/A
Operating System Ubuntu 12.04 LTS Server Edition 64 bit Ubuntu 12.04 LTS Server Edition 64 bit OS X Mavericks
Memory 3 GB 3 GB
Cores Up to 2, bursted Up to 2, bursted

All Education Pack builds use Container-based infrastructure.

Networking

The virtual machines running the tests have IPv6 enabled. They do not have any external IPv4 address but are fully able to communicate with any external IPv4 service.

The IPv6 stack can have some impact on Java services in particular, where one might need to set the flag java.net.preferIPv4Stack to force the JVM to resort to the IPv4 stack should services show issues of not booting up or not being reachable via the network: -Djava.net.preferIPv4Stack=true.

Most services work normally when talking to the local host by either localhost or 127.0.0.1.

Environment common to all VM images

Version control

All VM images have the following pre-installed

  • A Git 1.8 release from the git-core PPA
  • Mercurial (official Ubuntu packages)
  • Subversion (official Ubuntu packages)

Compilers & Build toolchain

GCC, Clang, make, autotools, cmake, scons.

Networking tools

curl, wget, OpenSSL, rsync

Go

Go compiler/build tools.

Runtimes

Every worker has at least one version of

  • Ruby
  • OpenJDK
  • Python
  • Node.js
  • Go compiler/build tool

to accommodate projects that may need one of those runtimes during the build.

Language-specific workers have multiple runtimes for their respective language (for example, Ruby workers have about 10 Ruby versions/implementations).

Data Stores

  • MySQL
  • PostgreSQL
  • SQLite
  • MongoDB
  • Redis
  • Riak
  • Apache Cassandra
  • Neo4J Community Edition
  • ElasticSearch
  • CouchDB

Firefox

All virtual environments have recent version of Firefox installed, currently 31.0 for Linux environments and 25.0 for OSX.

If you need a specific version of Firefox, use the Firefox addon to install it during the before_install stage of the build.

For example, to install version 17.0, add the following to your .travis.yml file:

addons:
  firefox: "17.0"

Please note that the addon only works in 64-bit Linux environments.

Messaging Technology

Headless Browser Testing Tools

Environment variables

There is a list of default environment variables available in each build environment.

Libraries

  • OpenSSL
  • ImageMagick

apt configuration

apt is configured to not require confirmation (assume -y switch by default) using both DEBIAN_FRONTEND env variable and apt configuration file. This means apt-get install -qq can be used without the -y flag.

Group membership

The user executing the build ($USER) belongs to one primary group derived from that user. If your project needs extra memberships to run the build, follow these steps:

  1. Set up the environment. This can be done any time during the build lifecycle prior to the build script execution.
    • Set up and export environment variables.
    • Add $USER to desired secondary groups: sudo usermod -a -G SECONDARY_GROUP_1,SECONDARY_GROUP_2 $USER You may modify the user’s primary group with -g.
  2. Your script would look something like:
script: sudo -E su $USER -c 'COMMAND1; COMMAND2; COMMAND3'

This will pass the environment variables down to a bash process which runs as $USER, while retaining the environment variables defined and belonging to secondary groups given above in usermod.

Build system information

In the build log, relevant software versions (including the available language versions) is show in the “Build system information”.

Go VM images

The following aliases are available, and are recommended in order to minimize frictions when images are updated:

  • go1, go1.0 → 1.0.3
  • go1.1 → 1.1.2
  • go1.2 → 1.2.2

JVM (Clojure, Groovy, Java, Scala) VM images

JDK

  • Oracle JDK 7 (oraclejdk7)
  • OpenJDK 7 (openjdk7)
  • OpenJDK 6 (openjdk6)
  • Oracle JDK 8 (oraclejdk8)

OracleJDK 7 is the default because we have a much more recent patch level compared to OpenJDK 7 from the Ubuntu repositories. Sun/Oracle JDK 6 is not provided because it reached End of Life in fall 2012.

The $JAVA_HOME will be set correctly when you choose the jdk value for the JVM image.

Maven version

Stock Apache Maven 3.2.x. Maven is configured to use Central and oss.sonatype.org mirrors at http://maven.travis-ci.org

Leiningen versions

travis-ci.org has both standalone (“uberjar”) Leiningen 1.7.x at /usr/local/bin/lein1 and Leiningen 2.4.x at /usr/local/bin/lein2. The default is 2.4.x; /usr/local/bin/lein is a symbolic link to /usr/local/bin/lein2.

SBT versions

travis-ci.org potentially provides any version of Simple Build Tool (sbt or SBT) thanks to very powerful sbt-extras alternative. In order to reduce build time, popular versions of sbt are already pre-installed (like for instance 0.13.5 or 0.12.4), but sbt command is able to dynamically detect and install the sbt version required by your Scala projects.

Gradle version

Gradle 2.0.

Erlang VM images

Erlang/OTP releases

Erlang/OTP releases are built using kerl.

Rebar

travis-ci.org provides a recent version of Rebar. If a repository has rebar binary bundled at ./rebar (in the repo root), it will be used instead of the preprovisioned version.

Node.js VM images

Node.js versions

Node runtimes are built using nvm.

SCons

Scons

Haskell VM images

Haskell Platform Version

Haskell Platform 2012.02 and GHC 7.0, 7.4, 7.6 and 7.8.

Perl VM images

Perl versions

Perl versions are installed via Perlbrew. Those runtimes that end with the -extras suffix have been compiled with -Duseshrplib and -Duseithreads flags. These also have aliases with the -shrplib suffix.

Pre-installed modules

cpanm (App::cpanminus) Dist::Zilla Dist::Zilla::Plugin::Bootstrap::lib ExtUtils::MakeMaker LWP Module::Install Moose Test::Exception Test::Kwalitee Test::Most Test::Pod Test::Pod::Coverage

PHP VM images

PHP versions

PHP runtimes are built using php-build.

hhvm is also available. and the nightly builds are installed on-demand (as hhvm-nightly).

XDebug

Is supported.

Extensions

[PHP Modules]
bcmath
bz2
Core
ctype
curl
date
dom
ereg
exif
fileinfo
filter
ftp
gd
gettext
hash
iconv
intl
json
libxml
mbstring
mcrypt
mysql
mysqli
mysqlnd
openssl
pcntl
pcre
PDO
pdo_mysql
pdo_pgsql
pdo_sqlite
pgsql
Phar
posix
readline
Reflection
session
shmop
SimpleXML
soap
sockets
SPL
sqlite3
standard
sysvsem
sysvshm
tidy
tokenizer
xdebug
xml
xmlreader
xmlrpc
xmlwriter
xsl
zip
zlib

[Zend Modules]
Xdebug

Python VM images

Python versions

Every Python has a separate virtualenv that comes with pip and distribute and is activated before running the build.

Python 2.4 and Jython are not supported and there are no plans to support them in the future.

Preinstalled pip packages

  • nose
  • py.test
  • mock
  • wheel

On all versions except pypy and pypy3 have numpy as well.

Ruby (aka common) VM images

Ruby versions/implementations

Ruby 1.8.6 and 1.9.1 are no longer provided on travis-ci.org.

Rubies are built using RVM that is installed per-user and sourced from ~/.bashrc.

RVM is able to install other versions on demand. For example, to test against Rubinius 2.2.1, you can use rbx-2.2.1 and RVM will download binaries on-demand.

Bundler version

Recent 1.7.x version (usually the most recent)

Gems in the global gem set

  • bundler
  • rake