The Build Environment

What This Guide Covers

This guide explain what packages, tools and settings are available in the Travis CI environment (often referred to as "CI environment").

Overview

Travis CI runs builds in isolated virtual machines that offer a vanilla build environment for every build.

This has the advantage that no state persists between builds, offering a clean slate and making sure that your tests can run in an environment built from scratch.

To set up the system for your build, you can use the sudo command to install packages, to change configuration, create users, and so on.

Builds have access to a variety of services for data storage and messaging, and can install anything that's required for them to run.

CI environment OS

Travis CI virtual machines are based on Ubuntu 12.04 LTS Server Edition 64 bit.

Environment common to all VM images

Git, etc

All VM images have the following pre-installed

  • A (very) recent Git release from the Peter van der Does' Git PPA
  • Mercurial (official Ubuntu packages)
  • Subversion (official Ubuntu packages)

Compilers & Build toolchain

GCC 4.6.x, Clang 3.2.x, make, autotools, cmake, scons.

Networking tools

curl, wget, OpenSSL, rsync

Go

Go compiler/build tools 1.0.3, 1.1.1, and 1.2

Runtimes

Every worker has at least one version of

  • Ruby
  • OpenJDK
  • Python
  • Node.js
  • Go compiler/build tool

to accommodate projects that may need one of those runtimes during the build.

Language-specific workers have multiple runtimes for their respective language (for example, Ruby workers have about 10 Ruby versions/implementations).

Data Stores

  • MySQL 5.5.x
  • PostgreSQL 9.1.x, 9.2.x and 9.3.x
  • SQLite 3.7.x
  • MongoDB 2.4.x
  • Redis 2.8.2 (on travis-ci.org, available in the Ruby, PHP and Java environments), Redis 2.6.x everywhere else
  • Riak 1.2.x
  • Apache Cassandra 2.0.x
  • Neo4J Community Edition 1.7.x
  • ElasticSearch 0.90.x
  • CouchDB 1.3.x

Messaging Technology

Headless Browser Testing Tools

Environment variables

  • CI=true
  • TRAVIS=true
  • CONTINUOUS_INTEGRATION=true
  • DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive
  • HAS_JOSH_K_SEAL_OF_APPROVAL=true
  • USER=travis (do not depend on this value)
  • HOME=/home/travis (do not depend on this value)
  • LANG=en_US.UTF-8
  • LC_ALL=en_US.UTF-8
  • RAILS_ENV=test
  • RACK_ENV=test
  • MERB_ENV=test
  • JRUBY_OPTS="--server -Dcext.enabled=false -Xcompile.invokedynamic=false"

Additionally, Travis CI sets environment variables you can use in your build, e.g. to tag the build, or to run post-build deployments.

  • TRAVIS_BRANCH: The name of the branch currently being built.
  • TRAVIS_BUILD_DIR: The absolute path to the directory where the repository being built has been copied on the worker.
  • TRAVIS_BUILD_ID: The id of the current build that Travis CI uses internally.
  • TRAVIS_BUILD_NUMBER: The number of the current build (for example, "4").
  • TRAVIS_COMMIT: The commit that the current build is testing.
  • TRAVIS_COMMIT_RANGE: The range of commits that were included in the push or pull request.
  • TRAVIS_JOB_ID: The id of the current job that Travis CI uses internally.
  • TRAVIS_JOB_NUMBER: The number of the current job (for example, "4.1").
  • TRAVIS_PULL_REQUEST: The pull request number if the current job is a pull request, "false" if it's not a pull request.
  • TRAVIS_SECURE_ENV_VARS: Whether or not secure environment vars are being used. This value is either "true" or "false".
  • TRAVIS_REPO_SLUG: The slug (in form: owner_name/repo_name) of the repository currently being built. (for example, "travis-ci/travis-build").

Language-specific builds expose additional environment variables representing the current version being used to run the build. Whether or not they're set depends on the language you're using.

  • TRAVIS_RUBY_VERSION
  • TRAVIS_JDK_VERSION
  • TRAVIS_NODE_VERSION
  • TRAVIS_PHP_VERSION
  • TRAVIS_PYTHON_VERSION

Libraries

  • OpenSSL
  • ImageMagick

apt configuration

apt is configured to not require confirmation (assume -y switch by default) using both DEBIAN_FRONTEND env variable and apt configuration file. This means apt-get install -qq can be used without the -y flag.

JVM (Clojure, Groovy, Java, Scala) VM images

JDK

  • Oracle JDK 7u6 (oraclejdk7)
  • OpenJDK 7 (alias: openjdk7)
  • OpenJDK 6 (openjdk6)
  • Oracle JDK 8 EA (oraclejdk8)

OracleJDK 7 is the default because we have a much more recent patch level compared to OpenJDK 7 from the Ubuntu repositories. Sun/Oracle JDK 6 is not provided because it reaches End of Life in the fall 2012.

Maven version

Stock Apache Maven 3. Maven is configured to use Central and oss.sonatype.org mirrors at http://maven.travis-ci.org

Leiningen versions

travis-ci.org has both standalone ("uberjar") Leiningen 1.7.x at /usr/local/bin/lein and Leiningen 2.0 (a recent preview) at /usr/local/bin/lein2.

SBT versions

travis-ci.org potentially provides any version of Simple Build Tool (sbt or SBT) thanks to very powerful sbt-extras alternative. In order to reduce build time, popular versions of sbt are already pre-installed (like for instance 0.12.1 or 0.11.3), but sbt command is able to dynamically detect and install the sbt version required by your Scala projects.

Gradle version

Gradle 1.9.

Erlang VM images

Erlang/OTP releases

  • R16B
  • R16B01
  • R16B02
  • R15B03
  • R15B02
  • R15B01
  • R15B
  • R14B04
  • R14B03
  • R14B02

Erlang/OTP releases are built using kerl.

Rebar

travis-ci.org provides a recent version of Rebar. If a repository has rebar binary bundled at ./rebar (in the repo root), it will be used instead of the preprovisioned version.

Node.js VM images

Node.js versions

  • 0.10.x (latest stable release)
  • 0.8.x
  • 0.6.x
  • 0.11.x (latest development release, may be unstable)

Node runtimes are built using nvm.

SCons

Scons 2.x.

Haskell VM images

Haskell Platform Version

Haskell Platform 2012.02 and GHC 7.4.

Perl VM images

Perl versions

  • 5.19
  • 5.18
  • 5.16
  • 5.14
  • 5.12
  • 5.10
  • 5.8

installed via Perlbrew.

cpanm

cpanm (App::cpanminus) version 1.5007

PHP VM images

PHP versions

  • 5.6
  • 5.5
  • 5.4
  • 5.3
  • hhvm

PHP runtimes are built using php-build.

XDebug

Is supported.

Extensions

[PHP Modules]
bcmath
bz2
Core
ctype
curl
date
dom
ereg
exif
fileinfo
filter
ftp
gd
gettext
hash
iconv
intl
json
libxml
mbstring
mcrypt
mysql
mysqli
mysqlnd
openssl
pcntl
pcre
PDO
pdo_mysql
pdo_pgsql
pdo_sqlite
pgsql
Phar
posix
readline
Reflection
session
shmop
SimpleXML
soap
sockets
SPL
sqlite3
standard
sysvsem
sysvshm
tidy
tokenizer
xdebug
xml
xmlreader
xmlrpc
xmlwriter
xsl
zip
zlib

[Zend Modules]
Xdebug

Python VM images

Python versions

  • 2.6
  • 2.7
  • 3.2
  • 3.3
  • pypy

Every Python has a separate virtualenv that comes with pip and distribute and is activated before running the build.

Python 2.4 and Jython are not supported and there are no plans to support them in the future.

Preinstalled pip packages

  • nose
  • py.test
  • mock

Ruby (aka common) VM images

Ruby versions/implementations

  • 2.0.0
  • 1.9.3 (default)
  • 1.9.2
  • jruby-18mode (1.7.8 in Ruby 1.8 mode)
  • jruby-19mode (1.7.8 in Ruby 1.9 mode)
  • ruby-head (upgraded every time CI passes)
  • jruby-head (upgraded every time CI passes)
  • 1.8.7
  • ree (2012.02)

Ruby 1.8.6 and 1.9.1 are no longer provided on travis-ci.org.

Rubies are built using RVM that is installed per-user and sourced from ~/.bashrc.

These are only the pre-installed versions of Ruby. RVM is able to install other versions on demand. For example, to test against Rubinius 2.2.1, you can use rbx-2.2.1 and RVM will download binaries on-demand.

Bundler version

Recent 1.3.x version (usually the most recent)

Gems in the global gem set

  • bundler
  • rake

How VM images are upgraded and deployed

We currently use Vagrant to develop, test, build, export and import VM images (a.k.a "Vagrant boxes"). Provisioning is automated using Opscode Chef. VM images are then uploaded to our internal network and deployed to each individual worker during slow periods of the day (around 03:00 GMT). VM images for different workers vary in size but in general are between 1.6 and 3.3 GB in size.

This means that to provision a new PHP release (for example), we do the following:

  • Update our PHP-related cookbooks and possibly tools like php-build that they depend on.
  • Test cookbooks locally
  • Build a new PHP VM image
  • Upload the image to our internal network
  • Take php1.worker.travis-ci.org down to import new images

For new releases of data stores or messaging technologies, for example, Riak

  • Update our Riak cookbook
  • Test the cookbook locally
  • Build a new standard VM image, then worker-specific (Ruby, PHP, Node.js and so on) VM images based on the new standard image
  • Upload new images to our internal network
  • Take travis-ci.org workers down one by one to import new images

The entire process usually takes from one to several hours (depending on how many VM images need to be rebuilt). Combined with the time for testing, new releases of runtimes and other widely used software usually go live on travis-ci.org within a week from the moment Travis CI Core team is notified about the release.

Chef Cookbooks

The Travis CI environment is set up using Opscode Chef. All the cookbooks used by travis-ci.org are open source and can be found on GitHub. travis-ci.org uses 64-bit Ubuntu Linux 12.04 but thanks to Chef, migrating to a different Ubuntu version or another distribution is much easier.

Chef cookbooks are developed using Vagrant and Sous Chef so cookbook contributors are encouraged to use them.

Many cookbooks Travis CI environment uses are taken from the official Opscode cookbooks repository. We modify some of them for continuous integration needs and sync them periodically or as the need arises.